Æthelflæd 4 (Female) Lady of the Mercians, 911-918
l ix-e x

Notes: BDDAB, pp. 21-2; BEASE, p. 14, s.vv.,‘Æthelred, "Lord of the Mercians"’; CDNB 1:944; DNB 18:21-2 = 6:885-6; Fletcher, pp. 147-8; Hart, ECNE, p. 283; MEE, p. 8; F. T. Wainwright, ‘Æthelflæd, lady of the Mercians’, Scandinavian England (1975), pp. 305–24; Marios Costambeys, ‘Æthelflæd (d. 918)’, ODNB. She may have owned land in Warwicks. & Bucks., see Æthelflæd 6.

Factoid List

Recorded Name (37)
(1)
 S361   
Aþelfled (1)
 S367a   
Edeldrída (1)
 AnnalsFragIrel  180.459
Edelflet (1)
 AnnalsCamb  918 C
Edelfrida (1)
 AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
Edfled (1)
 AnnalsCamb  918 B
Eithilfleith (1)
 AnnalsUlster  918.5
Ethelfled (1)
 S371   
Ælfled (1)
 AnnalsCamb  918 A
Æthelflæd (1)
 Asser.VitAlfredi  75
Æðelfled (3)
 S367   
 Æthelweard.Chron  iv.4 (p. 53)
 S221   
Æðelflæd (5)
 ASC (MR)  [910] C
 ASC (DEF)  918 E
 S223   
 S367   
 S1446   
Æþelfled (5)
 ASC (MR)  913 D
 S367a   
 S224   
 S225   
 S225   
Æþelflæd (14)
 ASC (MR)  [910] B, 909 D
 ASC (MR)  [912] B, 912 C
 ASC (MR)  [913] B, 913 C
 ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C
 ASC (MR)  [917] B, 917 CD
 ASC (A)  918 A, 922 G
 S216   
 S220   
 S223   
 S346   
 S217   
 S1441   
 S361   
 S1280   
Personal Information (2)
intellectual (1)
 AnnalsFragIrel  180.459 (through her own cleverness)
reputation (1)
 AnnalsUlster  918.5 (very famous)
Office (14)
Dux (1)
 S1282   
Gubernator (2)
 S221    (holding by the assisting grace of God the monarchy of the Mercians and governing and defending them in honourable manner)
 S225    (governing the kingdom of the Mercians)
Lady of (5)
 ASC (DEF)  918 E (Lady of the Mercians)
 S367    (held dominion and power over the Mercian people under the aforesaid king [Edward 1])
 S367a    (held dominion and power over the Mercian people under the aforesaid king [Edward 1])
 S371    (held dominion and power over the Mercian people under [Edward 1])
 S1280   
Monarchus (1)
 S221    (holding by the assisting grace of God the monarchy of the Mercians and governing and defending them in honourable manner)
Queen (5)
 AnnalsFragIrel  168.429 (Queen of the Saxons)
 AnnalsFragIrel  172.429 (Queen, who holds all authority over the Saxons)
 AnnalsFragIrel  180.459
 AnnalsUlster  918.5 (Queen of the Saxons)
 AnnalsCamb  918 ABC
Status (2)
Lady (2)
 S224   
 S1280   
Personal Relationship (15)
Æthelflæd 4 Daughter (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (4)
 of Alfred 8: Asser.VitAlfredi  75
 of Ealhswith 1: Asser.VitAlfredi  75
 of Alfred 8: S1507   
 of Alfred 8: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3
~ Friend (General relationship) of Æthelflæd 4 (2)
 Wærfrith 6: of Æthelflæd 4: S223   
 Ealhhelm 7: of Æthelflæd 4: S224   
Æthelflæd 4 Lady (General relationship) of ~ (4)
 of Missing Person: ASC (MR)  [912] B, 912 C
 of Missing Person: ASC (MR)  [913] B, 913 C
 of Missing Person: ASC (MR)  [917] B, 917 CD
 of Missing Person: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 C
Æthelflæd 4 Sister (Consanguineal kinship) of ~ (2)
 of Edward 2: ASC (A)  918 A, 922 G
 of Edward 2: Æthelweard.Chron  iv.4 (p. 53)
Æthelflæd 4 Wife (Affinal kinship) of ~ (3)
 of Æthelred 1: Asser.VitAlfredi  75
 of Æthelred 1: S217   
 of Æthelred 1: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3
Event (70)
Agreement (2)
 Anonymi 1364.agreement to be at Æthelflæd 4’s command: The people of York (Anonymi 1364) promised, some by pledge, some by oaths, that they were willing to be under her [sc. Æthelflæd 4's] direction.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
 S1441 - agreement between Wærfrith 6 and Æthelwald 31: Record of an agreement between Wærfrith 6, bishop of Worcester, and Æthelwald 31 concerning woodland at Woodchester, Bisley, Avening, Gloucs.; and at Scorranstone (? Sherston, Wilts.) and Thornbyrig (? Thornbury, Gloucs.) and swine-pasture at Longridge, Gloucs: S1441    (896)
Battle (3)
 Anonymi 2078-Anonymi 2079-Anonymi 2080.battle at Chester: The armies of the Danes (Anonymi 2079) and Norwegians (Anonymi 2080) attacked Chester and were repulsed by the troops (Anonymi 2078).: AnnalsFragIrel  170.429
 Æthelflæd 4.breaking down of Brecenanmere: [Æthelflæd 4 and the fyrd (Anonymi 1359)] broke down Brecenanmere.: ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C (916)
 Æthelflæd 4.gaining possession of burh at Derby: Æthelflæd 4 gained control before Lammas of the burh called Derby with all that belonged to it.: ASC (MR)  [917] B, 917 CD (917)
Bequeathing/will-making (1)
 Alfred 8.S1507 bequeathing land to Æthelflæd 4: King Alfred 8 to [Æthelflæd 4], his eldest daughter; bequest of the residence at Wellow [Somerset or Wilts.], and 100 pounds.: S1507    (873 x 888)
Burh - building (11)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Bridgnorth: [Æthelflæd 4 built] that [burh] at Bridgnorth.: ASC (MR)  [912] B, 912 C (912)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Chirbury: [Æthelflæd 4 built] that [burh] at Chirbury.: ASC (MR)  [915] B, 915 C (915)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Eddisbury: In the next year in the early summer [Æthelflæd 4 built] that [burh] at Eddisbury.: ASC (MR)  [914] B, 914 C
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Runcorn: [Æthelflæd 4 built] before midwinter that [burh] at Runcorn.: ASC (MR)  [915] B, 915 C (915)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Scergeat: Æthelflæd 4 built the burh at 'Scergeat'.: ASC (MR)  [912] B, 912 C (912)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Stafford: BC: Æthelflæd 4 afterwards before Lammas [built] the [fortress] at Stafford; D and also [built] Stafford.: ASC (MR)  [913] B, 913 CD
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Tamworth: [Æthelflæd 4] built [BC: the burh there (sc. at Tamworth), D: Tamworth].: ASC (MR)  [913] B, 913 CD (913)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh at Warwick: [Æthelflæd 4 built] that [burh] at Warwick.: ASC (MR)  [914] B, 914 C, 915 D (914)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh æt Bremesbyrig: Æthelflæd 4 built the burh at Bremesburh.: ASC (MR)  [910] B, 910 C, 909 D (910)
 Æthelflæd 4.building of burh æt Weardbyrig: [Æthelflæd 4 built] that [burh] æt Weardbyrig.: ASC (MR)  [915] B, 915 C (915)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.ordering burh at Worcester to be built: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4 ordered the burh at Worcester to be built for the protection of all the people and to exalt the praise of God therein: S223    ( x 899)
Burh - capture (2)
 Æthelflæd 4.gaining control of burh at Leicester: She [sc. Æthelflæd 4] gained control of the burh at Leicester peacefully.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
 Æthelflæd 4.gaining possession of burh at Derby: Æthelflæd 4 gained control before Lammas of the burh called Derby with all that belonged to it.: ASC (MR)  [917] B, 917 CD (917)
Burial (2)
 Æthelflæd 4.burial at Gloucester: Her [sc. Æthelflæd 4's] body lay within Gloucester in the east porticus of St Peter's church.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
 Æthelflæd 4.burial in Gloucester: The body of [Æthelflæd 4] was buried in the citadel of Gloucester.: Æthelweard.Chron  iv.4 (pp. 53-4) (918)
Burning (2)
 S225 - Æthelflæd 4 confirming land of Eadric 7: Æthelflæd 4, ruler of the Mercians, to Eadric 7, minister; grant of permission to acquire 10 hides (manentes) at Farnborough (Warwicks. or Berks.), bought from Wulflaf 13. The orginal landbook, granted by King Offa 7 to Bynna 2, Wulflaf 13's great-great-grandfather (abavus), had been destroyed in a fire.: S225    (915)
 S371 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewing landbook and confirming land for Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renews a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
Campaigning (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.sending of fierd (Anonymi 1359) against Welsh (Anonymi 1360): Æthelflæd 4 sent the fierd (Anonymi 1359) against the Welsh (Anonymi 1360).: ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C (916)
Capture (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.seizure of king’s wife (Anonymous 491) and others (Anonymi 1361): [Æthelflæd 4 and the fierd (Anonymi 1359)] there [sc. at Brecenanmere] seized the wife (Anonymous 491) of the king (Anonymous 492), one of thirty-four people (Anonymi 1361) [sc. seized].: ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C (916)
Charter confirmation (6)
 Edward 2-Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S371 confirming land of Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewed a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
 S361 - Edward 2 confirming sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2: Edward 2, Æthelred 1, and Ætheflæd 1 confirm the sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2 of 5 hides (manentes) at Water Eaton, Oxon., the earlier landbook having been lost: S361    (904)
 S361 - Wigfrith 2 requesting Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 for confirmation of land: Wigfrith 2 requested that Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 confirm Hungyth's sale of land to him: S361    (904)
 S367 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Æthelwulf 30 to Æthelgyth 1, his daughter, of 30 hides (cassati) at Monks Risborough, Bucks.: S367    (903)
 S367a - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Cenwulf 3, king of Mercia, to Beornnoth 2, comes, of 10 hides (cassati) at Islington, Middx.: S367a    (903)
 S371 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewing landbook and confirming land for Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renews a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
Charter-witnessing (16)
 S1280 - Wærfrith 6 leasing land to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Wærfrith 6, bishop, and the community at Worcester 1, to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, their lords; lease, for their lives and that of Ælfwynn 2 [their daughter] of a messuage (haga) in Worcester and land at Barbourne in North Claines, Worcs., with reversion to the bishop.: S1280    (904)
 S1282 - Wærfrith 6 leasing land to Cynehelm 9: Wærfrith 6, bishop (of Worcester), with the permission of King Alfred 8 and of Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, to Cynehelm 9, his kinsman; lease, for three lives, of 10 hides (manentes) at Bengeworth, Worcs., with reversion to the bishopric. The land had been granted to the church of Worcester by Burgred 5, king of the Mercians, and Bishop Ealhhun 2.: S1282    (907)
 S1441 - agreement between Wærfrith 6 and Æthelwald 31: Record of an agreement between Wærfrith 6, bishop of Worcester, and Æthelwald 31 concerning woodland at Woodchester, Bisley, Avening, Gloucs.; and at Scorranstone (? Sherston, Wilts.) and Thornbyrig (? Thornbury, Gloucs.) and swine-pasture at Longridge, Gloucs: S1441    (896)
 S1446 - Wærfrith 6-Eadnoth 4 settling dispute: Settlement of a dispute between Wærfrith 6, bishop, and Eadnoth 4, concerning land at Sodbury, Gloucs. : S1446    (903)
 S217 - Æthelred 1 granting land to the diocese of Worcester 1: Æthelred 1, dux et patricius of Mercian people, to the bishopric of Worcester 1; grant of 6 hides (mansiones) at Brightwell Baldwin and 8 at Watlington, Oxon., to pertain to the church at Readanoran (i.e. Pyrton, Oxon): S217    (887)
 S220 - Æthelred 1 granting land: Æthelred 1, procurator of Mercians, to Wulfgar 2, minister; grant of 15 hides (manentes) at Walden, Herts.: S220    (888)
 S221 - Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Much Wenlock: Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 S223 - Æthelred 1 & Æthelflæd 4 granting rights to Worcester: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4, with the witness of King Alfred 8, to the church of Worcester, St Peter's; grant of legal and trading rights at Worcester: land-rent, the fine for fighting, or theft, or dishonest trading, and damages to the borough-wall, and all the [fines for] offences which admit of compensation, are to belong half to the lord of the church, for the sake of God and St Peter, exactly as it has been laid done as regards this market-place and the streets; outside the market-place, the bishop is to be entitled to his lands and all his rights.: S223    (884 x 889)
 S224 - Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 S225 - Æthelflæd 4 confirming land of Eadric 7: Æthelflæd 4, ruler of the Mercians, to Eadric 7, minister; grant of permission to acquire 10 hides (manentes) at Farnborough (Warwicks. or Berks.), bought from Wulflaf 13. The orginal landbook, granted by King Offa 7 to Bynna 2, Wulflaf 13's great-great-grandfather (abavus), had been destroyed in a fire.: S225    (915)
 S346 - Alfred 8 & Æthelred 1 granting land and commercial privileges to Wærfrith 6: Alfred 8, king of the English and the Saxons, and Æthelred 1, subregulus et patricius Merciorum, to Wærfrith 6, bishop of Worcester; grant of land æt Hwætmundes stane in London, with commercial privileges: S346    (889)
 S361 - Edward 2 confirming sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2: Edward 2, Æthelred 1, and Ætheflæd 1 confirm the sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2 of 5 hides (manentes) at Water Eaton, Oxon., the earlier landbook having been lost: S361    (904)
 S361 - Wigfrith 2 requesting Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 for confirmation of land: Wigfrith 2 requested that Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 confirm Hungyth's sale of land to him: S361    (904)
 S367 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Æthelwulf 30 to Æthelgyth 1, his daughter, of 30 hides (cassati) at Monks Risborough, Bucks.: S367    (903)
 S367a - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Cenwulf 3, king of Mercia, to Beornnoth 2, comes, of 10 hides (cassati) at Islington, Middx.: S367a    (903)
 S371 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewing landbook and confirming land for Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renews a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
Church/monastery/minster foundation/dedication/restoration (1)
 Æthelflæd 4-Æthelred 1.building of Gloucester monastery: In Gloucester at the time of King Alfred 8 his daughter Æthelflæd 4 and her husband Æthelred 1 had built a well-provisioned monastery on which no expense was spared; and they had transferred there from Bardney the remains of King Oswald 1, all Mercia being under their sway.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3
Confirmation of land/privileges (3)
 Edward 2-Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S371 confirming land of Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewed a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
 S361 - Edward 2 confirming sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2: Edward 2, Æthelred 1, and Ætheflæd 1 confirm the sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2 of 5 hides (manentes) at Water Eaton, Oxon., the earlier landbook having been lost: S361    (904)
 S361 - Wigfrith 2 requesting Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 for confirmation of land: Wigfrith 2 requested that Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 confirm Hungyth's sale of land to him: S361    (904)
Conquest (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.subjection of most of here (Anonymi 1363): The greater part of the here attached to [Leicester] (Anonymi 1363) were subjugated [by Æthelflæd 4].: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
Death/dying (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.death: Queen Æthelfæd 1 passed away.: AnnalsCamb  918 ABC (918)
Demolition (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.breaking down of Brecenanmere: [Æthelflæd 4 and the fyrd (Anonymi 1359)] broke down Brecenanmere.: ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C (916)
Disputing/dispute-settling (1)
 S1446 - Wærfrith 6-Eadnoth 4 settling dispute: Settlement of a dispute between Wærfrith 6, bishop, and Eadnoth 4, concerning land at Sodbury, Gloucs. : S1446    (903)
Exhumation (1)
 Æthelflæd 4-Æthelred 1.building of Gloucester monastery: In Gloucester at the time of King Alfred 8 his daughter Æthelflæd 4 and her husband Æthelred 1 had built a well-provisioned monastery on which no expense was spared; and they had transferred there from Bardney the remains of King Oswald 1, all Mercia being under their sway.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3
Grant and Gift (19)
 Alfred 8.granting land to Canterbury and Worcester: Alfred 8, king, and Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, to Plegmund 1, archbishop, and to Christ Church, and to Wærfrith 6, bishop, and the church of Worcester; grant of 2 iugera of land at Ætheredes hyd (Queenhithe) on the Thames, one to each.: S1628    (898 x 899)
 Ealhhelm 7.S224 exchanging with Æthelflæd 4: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 Edward 2-Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S371 confirming land of Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewed a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
 Much Wenlock 1.S221 exchanging with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Æthelred 15 and Æthelflæd 7, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock 1; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 S1282 - Wærfrith 6 leasing land to Cynehelm 9: Wærfrith 6, bishop (of Worcester), with the permission of King Alfred 8 and of Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, to Cynehelm 9, his kinsman; lease, for three lives, of 10 hides (manentes) at Bengeworth, Worcs., with reversion to the bishopric. The land had been granted to the church of Worcester by Burgred 5, king of the Mercians, and Bishop Ealhhun 2.: S1282    (907)
 S217 - Æthelred 1 granting land to the diocese of Worcester 1: Æthelred 1, dux et patricius of Mercian people, to the bishopric of Worcester 1; grant of 6 hides (mansiones) at Brightwell Baldwin and 8 at Watlington, Oxon., to pertain to the church at Readanoran (i.e. Pyrton, Oxon): S217    (887)
 S220 - Æthelred 1 granting land: Æthelred 1, procurator of Mercians, to Wulfgar 2, minister; grant of 15 hides (manentes) at Walden, Herts.: S220    (888)
 S221 - Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Much Wenlock: Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 S223 - Æthelred 1 & Æthelflæd 4 granting rights to Worcester: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4, with the witness of King Alfred 8, to the church of Worcester, St Peter's; grant of legal and trading rights at Worcester: land-rent, the fine for fighting, or theft, or dishonest trading, and damages to the borough-wall, and all the [fines for] offences which admit of compensation, are to belong half to the lord of the church, for the sake of God and St Peter, exactly as it has been laid done as regards this market-place and the streets; outside the market-place, the bishop is to be entitled to his lands and all his rights.: S223    (884 x 889)
 S224 - Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 S225 - Æthelflæd 4 confirming land of Eadric 7: Æthelflæd 4, ruler of the Mercians, to Eadric 7, minister; grant of permission to acquire 10 hides (manentes) at Farnborough (Warwicks. or Berks.), bought from Wulflaf 13. The orginal landbook, granted by King Offa 7 to Bynna 2, Wulflaf 13's great-great-grandfather (abavus), had been destroyed in a fire.: S225    (915)
 S346 - Alfred 8 & Æthelred 1 granting land and commercial privileges to Wærfrith 6: Alfred 8, king of the English and the Saxons, and Æthelred 1, subregulus et patricius Merciorum, to Wærfrith 6, bishop of Worcester; grant of land æt Hwætmundes stane in London, with commercial privileges: S346    (889)
 S367 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Æthelwulf 30 to Æthelgyth 1, his daughter, of 30 hides (cassati) at Monks Risborough, Bucks.: S367    (903)
 S367a - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Cenwulf 3, king of Mercia, to Beornnoth 2, comes, of 10 hides (cassati) at Islington, Middx.: S367a    (903)
 S371 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renewing landbook and confirming land for Æthelfrith 3: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, renews a landbook destroyed by fire for Æthelfrith 3, dux; confirmation of 20 hides (cassati) at Wrington, Somerset: S371    (903)
 Æthelflæd 4.S224 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 Æthelflæd 4.grant of land to Ingimund 1: Æthelflæd 4 gave Ingimund 1 lands near Chester, where he stayed for a time.: AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S221 exchanging with Much Wenlock 1: Æthelred 15 and Æthelflæd 7, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S223 granting rights to St Peter's, Worcester: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4, with the witness of King Alfred 8, to the church of Worcester, St Peter's 1; grant of legal and trading rights at Worcester: land-rent, the fine for fighting, or theft, or dishonest trading, and damages to the borough-wall, and all the [fines for] offences which admit of compensation, are to belong half to the lord of the church, for the sake of God and St Peter, exactly as it has been laid done as regards this market-place and the streets; outside the market-place, the bishop is to be entitled to his lands and all his rights.: S223    (884 x 901)
Journey (2)
 Æthelflæd 4-Anonymi 1357.journey to Tamworth: Æthelflæd 4 went with all the Mercians (Anonymi 1357) to Tamworth.: ASC (MR)  [913] B, 913 C (913)
 Æthelflæd 4.arrival at Scergeat: Here Æthelflæd 4 came to 'Scergeat'.: ASC (MR)  [912] B, 912 C (912)
Law-making/legislation (2)
 S223 - Æthelred 1 & Æthelflæd 4 granting rights to Worcester: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4, with the witness of King Alfred 8, to the church of Worcester, St Peter's; grant of legal and trading rights at Worcester: land-rent, the fine for fighting, or theft, or dishonest trading, and damages to the borough-wall, and all the [fines for] offences which admit of compensation, are to belong half to the lord of the church, for the sake of God and St Peter, exactly as it has been laid done as regards this market-place and the streets; outside the market-place, the bishop is to be entitled to his lands and all his rights.: S223    (884 x 889)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S223 granting rights to St Peter's, Worcester: Æthelred 1, ealdorman, and Æthelflæd 4, with the witness of King Alfred 8, to the church of Worcester, St Peter's 1; grant of legal and trading rights at Worcester: land-rent, the fine for fighting, or theft, or dishonest trading, and damages to the borough-wall, and all the [fines for] offences which admit of compensation, are to belong half to the lord of the church, for the sake of God and St Peter, exactly as it has been laid done as regards this market-place and the streets; outside the market-place, the bishop is to be entitled to his lands and all his rights.: S223    (884 x 901)
Lease (2)
 S1280 - Wærfrith 6 leasing land to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Wærfrith 6, bishop, and the community at Worcester 1, to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, their lords; lease, for their lives and that of Ælfwynn 2 [their daughter] of a messuage (haga) in Worcester and land at Barbourne in North Claines, Worcs., with reversion to the bishop.: S1280    (904)
 Wærfrith 6.S1280 leasing land to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Wærfrith 6, bishop, and the community at Worcester 1, to Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, their lords; lease, for their lives and that of Ælfwynn 2, their daughter, of a messuage (haga) in Worcester 1 and land at Barbourne in North Claines, Worcs., with reversion to the bishop.: S1280    (904)
Liturgical celebration (1)
 Wærfrith 6-Worcester, Peter’s.appointing divine offices for Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Bishop Wærfrith 6 and the community of Worcester, St Peter's, appointed the following divine offices to be said for Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 both during their lives and after their deaths: at every matins and at every vespers and at every tierce, the psalm De profundis as long as they live, and after their death Laudate Dominum; and every Saturday in St Peter's church 30 psalms and a mass for them.: S223    (889 x 899)
Marriage (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.marriage to Æthelred 1 [= Æthelred 1]: Æthelflæd 4 was joined to Æthelred 1 [= Æthelred 1] in matrimony.: Asser.VitAlfredi  75
Message-sending (1)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.request to the Irish (Anonymi 2081): Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 sent messengers (Anonymi 2082) to the Irish (Anonymi 2081).: AnnalsFragIrel  170.429, 172,429
Mustering (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.assembling of her troops (Anonymi 2078) in Chester: [Æthelflæd 4] gathered a large army (Anonymi 2078) from the adjoining regions and filled Chester with her troops.: AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
Oath-swearing/fealty (1)
 Anonymi 1364.agreement to be at Æthelflæd 4’s command: The people of York (Anonymi 1364) promised, some by pledge, some by oaths, that they were willing to be under her [sc. Æthelflæd 4's] direction.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
Peace agreement (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.peace made with men of Alba and Britons (Anonymi 2087): Æthelflæd 4 made peace with the men of Alba and with the Britons (Anonymi 2087).: AnnalsFragIrel  181.459
Promise (1)
 Anonymi 1364.agreement to be at Æthelflæd 4’s command: The people of York (Anonymi 1364) promised, some by pledge, some by oaths, that they were willing to be under her [sc. Æthelflæd 4's] direction.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
Property-buying/purchasing (1)
 S225 - Æthelflæd 4 confirming land of Eadric 7: Æthelflæd 4, ruler of the Mercians, to Eadric 7, minister; grant of permission to acquire 10 hides (manentes) at Farnborough (Warwicks. or Berks.), bought from Wulflaf 13. The orginal landbook, granted by King Offa 7 to Bynna 2, Wulflaf 13's great-great-grandfather (abavus), had been destroyed in a fire.: S225    (915)
Property-exchanging (5)
 Ealhhelm 7.S224 exchanging with Æthelflæd 4: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 Much Wenlock 1.S221 exchanging with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Æthelred 15 and Æthelflæd 7, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock 1; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 S221 - Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Much Wenlock: Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
 Æthelflæd 4.S224 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.S221 exchanging with Much Wenlock 1: Æthelred 15 and Æthelflæd 7, rulers of Mercia, to the community of the church of Much Wenlock; grant of 10 hides (cassatae) at Stanton Long and 3 hides (manentes) at Caughley in Barrow, Salop., in exchange for 3 hides (manentes) at Easthope and 5 at Patton, Salop. They also grant a gold chalice weighing 30 mancuses in honour of Abbess Mildburg 1.: S221    (901)
Property-giving/selling (5)
 Ealhhelm 7.S224 exchanging with Æthelflæd 4: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 S224 - Æthelflæd 4 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
 S361 - Edward 2 confirming sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2: Edward 2, Æthelred 1, and Ætheflæd 1 confirm the sale by Hungyth 1 to Wigfrith 2 of 5 hides (manentes) at Water Eaton, Oxon., the earlier landbook having been lost: S361    (904)
 S361 - Wigfrith 2 requesting Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 for confirmation of land: Wigfrith 2 requested that Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 confirm Hungyth's sale of land to him: S361    (904)
 Æthelflæd 4.S224 exchanging with Ealhhelm 7: Æthelflæd 4, lady of the Mercians, to Ealhhelm 7; grant of 2 hides (manentes) at Stantun (? Stanton by Newhall, Derbys.), in return for 60 swine and 300 solidi: S224    (914)
Property-transacting (1)
 S1441 - agreement between Wærfrith 6 and Æthelwald 31: Record of an agreement between Wærfrith 6, bishop of Worcester, and Æthelwald 31 concerning woodland at Woodchester, Bisley, Avening, Gloucs.; and at Scorranstone (? Sherston, Wilts.) and Thornbyrig (? Thornbury, Gloucs.) and swine-pasture at Longridge, Gloucs: S1441    (896)
Religious practice (1)
 Wærfrith 6-Worcester, Peter’s.appointing divine offices for Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4: Bishop Wærfrith 6 and the community of Worcester, St Peter's, appointed the following divine offices to be said for Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 both during their lives and after their deaths: at every matins and at every vespers and at every tierce, the psalm De profundis as long as they live, and after their death Laudate Dominum; and every Saturday in St Peter's church 30 psalms and a mass for them.: S223    (889 x 899)
Request (5)
 Ingimund 1.request to Æthelflæd 4 for land: Ingimund 1 asked Æthelflæd 4 for lands on which to settle.: AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
 S361 - Wigfrith 2 requesting Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 for confirmation of land: Wigfrith 2 requested that Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 confirm Hungyth's sale of land to him: S361    (904)
 S367 - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Æthelwulf 30 to Æthelgyth 1, his daughter, of 30 hides (cassati) at Monks Risborough, Bucks.: S367    (903)
 S367a - Edward 2, Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 renewing a charter: King Edward 2, with Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 of Mercia, at the request of Æthelfrith 3, dux, renews the charter of a grant by Cenwulf 3, king of Mercia, to Beornnoth 2, comes, of 10 hides (cassati) at Islington, Middx.: S367a    (903)
 Æthelred 1-Æthelflæd 4.request to the Irish (Anonymi 2081): Æthelred 1 and Æthelflæd 4 sent messengers (Anonymi 2082) to the Irish (Anonymi 2081).: AnnalsFragIrel  170.429, 172,429
Residence (1)
 Æthelflæd 4.grant of land to Ingimund 1: Æthelflæd 4 gave Ingimund 1 lands near Chester, where he stayed for a time.: AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
Siege (1)
 Anonymi 2078-Anonymi 2079-Anonymi 2080.battle at Chester: The armies of the Danes (Anonymi 2079) and Norwegians (Anonymi 2080) attacked Chester and were repulsed by the troops (Anonymi 2078).: AnnalsFragIrel  170.429
Submission (3)
 Anonymi 1364.agreement to be at Æthelflæd 4’s command: The people of York (Anonymi 1364) promised, some by pledge, some by oaths, that they were willing to be under her [sc. Æthelflæd 4's] direction.: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
 Anonymi 1449.submission to Edward 2: All the people in the land of the Mercians who earlier had been subject to Æthelflæd 4 (Anonymi 1449) turned to him [sc. Edward 2].: ASC (A)  918 A, 922 G (918)
 Æthelflæd 4.subjection of most of here (Anonymi 1363): The greater part of the here attached to [Leicester] (Anonymi 1363) were subjugated [by Æthelflæd 4].: ASC (MR)  [918] B, 918 CD (918)
Tomb-making/opening (1)
 Æthelflæd 4-Æthelred 1.building of Gloucester monastery: In Gloucester at the time of King Alfred 8 his daughter Æthelflæd 4 and her husband Æthelred 1 had built a well-provisioned monastery on which no expense was spared; and they had transferred there from Bardney the remains of King Oswald 1, all Mercia being under their sway.: WilliamofMalmesbury.GestaPontificumAnglorum  iv.155.3
Factoids linked indirectly to Æthelflæd 4 (4)
Office (1)
Thegn of Æthelflæd 4 (1)
 Anonymi 1362: ASC (MR)  [917] B, 917 CD
Occupation (2)
Army of Æthelflæd 4 (1)
 Anonymi 2078: AnnalsFragIrel  168.429
Messenger of Æthelflæd 4 (1)
 Anonymi 2082: AnnalsFragIrel  170.429
Status (1)
Captive of Æthelflæd 4 (1)
 Anonymi 1361: ASC (MR)  [916] B, 916 C